Address: 186-198 George Street
Architect: John Arthur Burnside (1856-1920)
Clerk of Works: John Wright
‘St George’ was one of the most successful brands to come out of Dunedin, becoming a household name throughout New Zealand as well as exporting to overseas markets. Irvine & Stevenson’s St George Company produced jams, soups, tinned meat and fish, other preserved foods, and household products such as laundry crystals. In terms of buildings, it was generally associated with the old Keast & McCarthy brewery site in Filleul Street, where it operated a preserving works from 1897 to 1977. Before that, however, it was based on a site at the corner of St Andrew and George Streets, and that’s what this story is about.
In the early 1860s James Irvine owned three grocery stores in Kilsyth, near Glasgow. In 1863 he came to Dunedin with his wife, Jane, to start a new life in what was then a booming gold rush town. He opened a shop in Filleul Street, and was one of the first bacon curers in the city. The store relocated to George Street (between Hanover and St Andrew streets) around 1870.
William Stevenson was 23 years younger than James Irvine. He came out from Scotland as a boy, and at the age of 21 became a partner in the grocery firm Stevenson & Ford, which occupied one of ‘several insignificant wooden buildings’ on the corner of George and St Andrew streets. There had been a grocery store on the site since James Wallace opened for business in 1864. Immediately to its south were premises occupied by Robert Brown’s cake shop (established in 1879), and next to this was the Oddfellows’ Hall (erected in 1862). Behind these structures were brick stables, and a double cottage facing St Andrew Street.
Stevenson married Irvine’s daughter, Barbara, in 1881, and the following year the two men went into partnership as Irvine & Stevenson. They opened a temporary shop in the Southampton Buildings (now part of the Golden Centre mall) while a block of three new shops and offices was built on leasehold land occupied by the old Stevenson & Ford store, Brown’s shop, and the Oddfellows’ Hall. The architect J.A. Burnside called for tenders in April 1882, and by the following January the building was complete. Irvine & Stevenson used the corner shop as their grocery store, and beneath it was a large storage cellar. Two smaller shops fronting George Street were leased out: one of them to Robert Brown and the other to the drapers M.W. Green & Sons.
Constructed from brick, with a stone foundation and a slate roof, the buildings cost £2,898. An Otago Daily Times reporter wrote approvingly:
Although appearance has not been the main object in view, it must be admitted that the front elevation of the buildings displays an exceptionally neat style of architecture, and that the block is by no means the least creditable of many fine buildings in the city. It is needless to remark that the buildings are of a substantial character, while the dimensions mentioned show that they are commodious.
The architecture was loosely Renaissance Revival in style, showing some of the emerging eclecticism also apparent in James Hislop’s design for the Boot Palace (1885-1886) on the opposite corner. Features included rounded corners to the window heads, and small chimneys integrated with the St Andrew Street parapet. The incised decoration above the windows was uncommon in Dunedin with other examples from around the same time including the Coulls Culling warehouse in Crawford Street (since demolished), and the former Dowson’s building at 305 George Street. The verandah was described as one of the best in the city. It had a glazed roof, and its iron pillars and ornate fretwork were manufactured locally by Barningham & Co.
The appointed builder was Henry Martin, but he met with financial difficulty and his contract was terminated before the project was far advanced. Subsequent work was carried out through various contracts, with John Wright apparently acting as Clerk of Works. A few years before Wright had performed a similar role in the building of the Terminus Hotel, also designed by Burnside.
Behind the shops and offices, a two-storey building was erected for curing ham and bacon. It was completed a little later in 1883 and cost a further £555. Between 1886 and 1887 ‘sheds’ were demolished and replaced with a smoke house for sausages at a cost of £275. In 1888 a jam factory building and a large chimney stack were built on the site previously occupied by cottages. They were likely designed by R.A. Lawson, as company accounts shows fees paid to him in connection with the project, which cost £815.
Irvine & Stevenson registered their ‘St George’ trademark in 1885, and it’s possible (though perhaps unlikely) that the idea for the name was inspired by the streets where the company buildings were sited: St Andrew and George. The brand symbol was a shield containing the image St George on horseback, slaying a dragon. By 1889 the company was producing 300 cases of jam per week, with stoneware jars from Graham Winter & Co.’s Milton Pottery Works. Jam production moved to the former Peacock & Co. premises in Moray Place, soon after Irvine & Stevenson bought it as their ‘no. 2’ factory in 1891.
In 1894 the original complex was described as having 100 x 66 feet of floor space on each of its two storeys. Activities included bacon curing, sausage making, tea blending, coffee and pepper grinding, and washing powder manufacture. There was also a short-lived diversification into confectionery. The Keast & McCarthy brewery premises were acquired in 1896, and the company opened new preserving works there the following year. A freezing plant was installed with insulated rooms and compressed-air freezing machine with enormous pistons. Industrial operations in the rear buildings continued until the structures were rebuilt as shops in 1929, but I’ll leave this for further discussion in my next post.
The shop on the corner was occupied by Irvine & Stevenson’s grocery store for thirty-one years up to 1913, when the company sold it to focus on manufacturing activities. A grocery store remained on the site for another ten years, first run by McIlroy Bros, and then B.J. McArthur. In 1922 the shop and upstairs rooms were taken by the optometrists Hugh & G.K. Neill, who over time developed the complementary photography business Hugh & G.K. Neill Photographics Ltd. In 1997 Neill’s Camera & Video became Jonathan’s Camera & Video, which expanded into the shop next door. Jonathan’s Photo Warehouse remains in the middle shop today, while the corner site is once again in the hands of the optometrists Milburn & Neill (the current iteration of the old firm), who have now been based in the building continuously for over ninety years.
The corner hasn’t always been a peaceful spot. In 1892 George Street was the scene of demonstrations in support of the Saturday half-holiday movement, and one of Irvine & Stevenson’s plate glass windows was smashed. There were also demonstrations during the Great Depression, and it was at this intersection where in April 1932 protestors stopped the taxi carrying the Mayoress, Helen Black, attempting to pull her out and overturn the vehicle. She had been involved in running a relief depot where there was anger that chits for supplies were handed out rather than money orders. It was also said that there was some resentment towards Mrs Black for handing out relief wearing white gloves – a symbol of privilege. These days any altercations at this location are likely to be of the late night drunken variety.
The middle shop was originally occupied by a succession of small draperies: M.W. Green & Sons, Carter & Co., and William McBeath, before Irvine & Stevenson put their own retail butchery in the space. For twenty years from 1910 it was occupied by the fruiterer William Carlton Ruffell, whose views on Chinese taking up his line of business reflected some of the racism in New Zealand society at the time. The Evening Post (Wellington) reported in 1920:
A deputation from the Dunedin Retail Fruiterers Association waited on the Dunedin City Council last week in reference to the Asiatic question […] Mr. H.E. Stephens said one shop had been opened in Dunedin, and they knew the Chinese were feeling for about a dozen other businesses. In the North, the trade was practically run by the Chinese. They were not desirable citizens, for they were not bound by our laws, could work as they liked, and were therefore unfair competitors. In California it was proposed to keep Asiatics from buying or holding land, and it was time something was done here. Mr W.C. Ruffell said what they really aimed at was the elimination of foreigners. They thought New Zealand should be white.
Ruffell’s shop became an outlet of Star Stores for nearly thirty years from 1930. It was then Adkins Foodmarket (1959-1973), Adams Fruit (1973-1987), and the clothing retailer Slick Willy’s (1987-2004), before Jonathan’s took it.
The southernmost shop (present no. 186) was leased by the confectioner Robert Brown in 1882 and was kept by his family for nearly seventy years. In later years it traded as Brown & Son, Brown’s Cafeteria, and Brown’s Cake Shop. It became Jordon’s Milk Bar around 1953, and photographs from the Hocken Collections show a slick American-influenced hangout of the rock ‘n roll era. It was a place where ‘milkbar cowboys’ gathered outside on Sunday afternoons (the Beau Monde was the spot on Friday nights), the coolest among them with Triumph Speed Twin and Thunderbird motorcycles. Inside, Oriental fans were a feature of the decoration. As well as traditional milkshake flavours, the Fla-va-tru range (‘America’s Latest!’) included: Blue Lagoon, Fruti Tuti, Chop Suey (can anyone enlighten me on that one?), Fruit Salad, Yankee Doodle, Smoky Joe, Nutti Cream, Butterscotch, Mint Julep, and Pink Lemonade. A wide variety of chocolates were sold, from Nestlé and Cadbury bars through to Winning Post, Caley’s Majestic, and Cadbury’s Centennial boxes. The snack bar offered spaghetti, baked beans on toast, poached eggs on toast, tomato soup and toast, and hot pies. Jordon’s closed in 1969 and was replaced by the Four Seasons Restaurant, which was in turn succeeded by Buyck’s Restaurant (1975-1980), the Pig ‘n Whistle Restaurant (1980-1982), and the Capri Coffee Lounge (1982-1987). The closure of the Capri ended the space’s role as an eatery after more than a century. Meanwhile, upstairs was dieting HQ, as Weight Watchers had their premises there for twenty years from 1976. The downstairs shop was occupied by Payless Shoes from 1987 to 1996, before the current tenant, Dollar Store 123, opened for business in 1998.
The property arm of Irvine & Stevenson retained a financial interest in the buildings up to 1962. The corner premises went into the ownership of Hugh & G.K. Neil, and the remainder to the Butler Family who named their portion Larent Buildings. I’m unsure why this name was chosen, as I haven’t found any obvious links between the name and the building, but it may have been because it was an investment property and ‘Larent’ is an anagram of ‘Rental’! The first floor windows in this part were replaced in 1970, giving the buildings their present lopsided appearance. The original verandah, cornice, and parapet have also been destroyed and their restoration together with the first floor windows would transform the building from its somewhat awkward and unassuming look to a striking and handsome feature of the street.
So as not to confuse things, I’ll treat the historical development of the old factory buildings separately in the next post. So, as they say:
To be continued….
Otago Daily Times, 22 October 1873 p.2 (James Irvine, ham and bacon), 18 January 1882 p.2 (auction of leasehold), 20 January 1883 p.2 (description of George Street buildings), 3 June 1887 p.1 (opening of pork and provision shop), 19 May 1894 supp. (description of Irvine & Stevenson premises), 27 January 1908 p.7 (freezing plant), 20 November 1919 p.10 (‘The Preserving Industry’), 8 November 2008 p.6 (‘Recalling Dunedin’s Dark Days’ by Mark Price); Evening Post (Wellington), 28 June 1920 p.6 (W.C. Ruffell)
Irvine & Stevenson’s St George Co. Ltd records, Hocken Collections UN-016
Stevenson, Geoffrey W., The House of St George: A Centennial History 1864-1964 (Dunedin: Irvine & Stevenson’s St George Co. Ltd, )
Baré, Robert, City of Dunedin Block Plans (Dunedin: Caxton Steam Printing Company, )
Jones, F. Oliver, Structural Plans of the City of Dunedin NZ, ‘Ignis et Aqua’ series, 
Council of Fire and Accident Underwriters’ Associations of New Zealand, block plans, 1927
Stone’s Otago and Southland Directory
Wise’s New Zealand Post Office Directory
Dunedin City Council permit records and deposited plans (with thanks to Glen Hazelton)
Thanks to Allan Dick for his memories of Dunedin milk bars.
Note: some occupancy dates may be a year out either way due to reliance on annual directories.
Thanks Owain 🙂
The milk bar photos are so wonderful!
It was lucky someone had donated them to Hocken just a couple of years ago. As well as the delight in each image as a whole, there is a lot of interesting detail, such as all of the milkshake names.
Another great read. Cheers for all your work. Amazing.
I checked out your blog – this post in particular. It’s very cool that you are doing this important research and bringing out the colour in the story. I’ll show it to my mum. She will probably remember some of these places and the 1950s milkbar in particular. I noticed one of your references for pictures is Te Papa. It would be good if all their Dunedin building-related photos could be returned to be held locally at Hocken… Keep up the good work,
Thanks very much Jo. I often go back to your mum’s work – great research and style. What impresses me about Te Papa is that they’ve done some of the best digitisation out there, and their generous usage policy make it easy to explore and share their images online. Often there will be similar prints in other collections but theirs are readily available at high quality.
Great post. I couldn’t agree more about the asymmetrical windows.
Thank you – there sure have been lot of odd windows put in Dunedin buildings without much thought to design.
I think the work of Lois Galer on behalf of historic heritage was for its time encouraging for a lot of Dunedin people. Her writing for Allied Press Ltd resulted in a popular series of books on Dunedin properties in particular that guided our notice of local heritage values. Although, typically for the era, Lois was untrained in the field of heritage conservation she was able to progress a startling number of historic place registrations for NZHPT when she was a Trust officer. Lois’s historical work in Otago Southland is perhaps unequalled in this regard.
The current standards for registration and registration upgrades are particularly high and each nomination undergoes rigorous checking by experts in their field(s) before registration can be granted by the Heritage New Zealand Board.
Nowadays, using skilled registration researchers, heritage advisers and archaeologists, NZHPT / HNZ are ensuring that a lot of the earlier historical information contained in registration reports for properties is overwritten or augmented, and for legal reasons since Category I and II registrations are lodged against property titles – it’s imperative then, not to include material the veracity of which won’t stand up if tested in a court of law.
Heritage New Zealand has inherited a great deal of accurate and inaccurate yet interesting information on heritage properties from the now defunct branch committees and early officers of the Trust.
I think it’s unwise to overrate ‘training’ in heritage investigation when I’m not really sure what special benefit such ‘training’ confers, particularly with regards Lois Galer. I have a first class honours degree (2009) in history and have worked on some notable research projects using all the ‘latest’ research and documentation techniques available. Actually, Lois, my mother, was more of a teacher to me than any historical degree-trained expert ever was. She taught me to leave no stone unturned, and her methods were the same (and some) we use ‘today’. Her knowledge of local architecture and methods of construction, streetscapes and planning concepts still impress me today as ever. At Hocken I’m told her array of books documenting her at times lonely pursuit of facts about our Dunedin built heritage are some of the most widely used sources for such research still. Moreover, as she was a properly trained journalist, her ability to speak to people, record information, with empathy, and listen (rather than brandish her own knowledge) was admired by many. To top it off, she could write and communicate in public admirably. Having worked as a journalist in newspapers myself, I know how hard it is to write well. I’m very proud of her, and I guess all those skills must still be relevant, even critical, to those who do this same work today. How fortunate the HPT was to have her varied skills, the sum of which must still be very difficult to find in one clever person. To top it all off, she could courageously negotiate and advocate for our heritage passionately, assertively and yet with respect, at the highest levels, achieving results in terms of building preservation so many (not just me) have been thankful for. It pays to be nice to people and maintain relationships and she did this so well, during some very harrowing times for Dunedin and heritage.
I will make the point that ‘history training’ is absolutely not what I was alluding to by way of expertise required for effecting registrations today – the ability to research and record, and to analyse, compare and interpret, is not merely confined to documentary process with respect to nominations for registrations. Expertise in heritage related fields for making nominations ‘stick’ mostly involves a multidisciplinary team approach coordinated by the regional registrations officer – thus my comment stands that skilled heritage advisers and archaeologists are used – naturally the ‘team’ may be expanded according to the subject and context of each study. The expertise may also come from knowledgeable lay people and professionals who are nationally or internationally accredited and who are recognised by their peers for their work experience and specialisation. Independently, without bias, as I have stated, Lois Galer and her work stands on its merits and is widely and popularly regarded in its context.
Thanks for your clarification Elizabeth.
Too much good stuff here. First to answer your question. In those times chop suey sauce was also sweet, made from cooked dried fruit and nuts in a sauce. It was used as a topping for ice cream. If you looked now you would have a hard time finding a recipe for it, swamped by the popular savoury dish. However I have seen it in cookbooks. So the flavour would probably be inspired by that. I actually have a picture of the label and really puzzled over it too and in the end decided it was some kind of sauce or syrup given Fla-Va-Tru only made essences and syrups. They always put ‘AMERICAN’ on the bottles as a kind of selling point, when in fact there was nothing ‘American’ about it – Fla-Va-Tru were a Matai Street, Masterton company.
I’d be interested to know what era this list came from, sounds like the 1950s.
Thanks for filling me in on the chop suey flavour – apart from assuming it was sweet I really had no idea. The list of flavours is from a sign in one of the photographs dated to 1957. There’s a lot of detail in them and I’ll capture some of it to post to the Upright facebook page. The origins of Fla-Va-Tru with the American marketing ploy are fascinating.
I’ve been collecting Fla-Va-Tru stuff out of interest for some time, but never looked into it. Upon further hunting around, I was able to find a list which included most but not all of these as essences and flavourings in a 1953 Aunt Daisy cookbook. Apparently the brand was launched by one of the fellows from Hansell’s who joined forces with a health food manufacturer in the early 1940s, but there seems to be some evidence that Fla-Va-Tru was around as far back at the Thirties.
The pictures of the milk bar are fantastic. It would be great to be able to look at them in detail and see exactly what products were on offer. I could, as you mention, recognise Centennial and Majestic. With the premise of St George history along with all the other stuff, this article ticked all the boxes for me.
Thanks! I much appreciate the feedback. Many of the boxes, wrappers etc. on the shelf can be seen and I’ll get back to you soon on that.
The detail is now posted to the ‘Upright’ page on Facebook at: http://goo.gl/aJvpgp
I’m enjoying reading this historical information as a descendant of the Irvine Stevenson family. I am realizing how very little I know about my descendants, as my mother didn’t really talk about them enough. So thank you for your research and writings….
Thanks Frances – your kind comment is much appreciated.
I am descended from James Stevenson’s nephew and have built up a folder of information which I am happy to share if you are still interested in your ancestors. There must be many other descendants in NZ too.
I too enjoyed enjoyed your article David Murray and thank you very much for it.
I worked at the St George factory from late 1964 to 1965 as the syrup maker for jam and fruit canning. I enjoyed my time there before going north to Auckland. I spent a year in Dunedin, first working at a wool store, then going to St George. Dunedin people are still the friendliest I have met in NZ.